AIDS (acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome) is a serious illness. The virus that causes AIDS attacks the immune system, the body's natural defense against disease. Damage to the immune system leaves the body vulnerable to secondary illnesses that can be fatal. There is still no known cure for AIDS, but effective treatments are now available. Research continues in the hope of developing better treatments and a vaccine.
Why should I learn about AIDS?
You should learn about AIDS because you may be at risk for it or you may be HIV positive, or your job may involve helping people who have AIDS. Learning about AIDS can help you understand the facts and reject the myths about the illness. Knowing about AIDS will also help you respond without fear to people who require your help.
What causes AIDS?
AIDS is caused by a virus called HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). A healthy immune system includes special kinds of white bloods cells called B cells and T cells, and depends on a balance of certain kinds of T cells. "Helper" T cells assist B cells in fighting disease. "Suppressor" T cells call off the attack when the invading disease has been stopped. HIV apparently destroys the helper cells without affecting suppressor cells proportionately. When suppressor cells outnumber helper cells, the immune system fails.
What are the effects of HIV on the body?
HIV may be in the body for many years before there are any signs of illness. As HIV weakens the immune system, signs and symptoms may appear. People may have:
swollen lymph glands in the neck, underarm, and groin area
recurrent fever, including "night sweats"
rapid weight loss for no apparent reason
diarrhea and decreased appetite
white spots or unusual blemishes in the mouth
People infected with HIV can't fight off a number of serious illnesses without medical treatment. One common illness of this type is Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), usually a rare lung infection. Symptoms include fever, cough, and shortness of breath.
Scientific research also shows that HIV can damage the brain and spinal cord. Signs of damage may include memory loss, indifference, inability to make decisions, partial paralysis, loss of coordination, and other problems in controlling the body.
How is HIV transmitted?
HIV is mainly spread:
unprotected sexual contact with an HIV-infected person
by sharing a needle to inject drugs with an HIV-infected person
from HIV-infected mothers to their infants before, during, and after birth (breast feeding)
HIV may also be spread through blood products. This is very unlikely now because:
all donors are carefully screened
all donors' blood and blood products are tested before being used
Current research shows that HIV is NOT spread by casual contact. For example, it is not spread by nonsexual, everyday contact, such as:
touching, hugging, and shaking hands
breathing and coughing
using toilets, telephones, drinking fountains, etc.
Anyone can get infected with HIV.
So far, most cases have occurred among:
homosexual and bisexual men who contracted HIV through sexual activity with an infected person
heterosexuals who contracted HIV from sexual activity with an infected person
injection drug users who contracted HIV by sharing needles and drug "works" to inject drugs
hemophiliacs who, years ago, contracted HIV through the use of donated blood and blood products
children who contracted HIV from an infected mother
Remember, anyone can look healthy and still be infected.
For more information about HIV/AIDS, Call 1-800-TALK-HIV.
Protecting Yourself Against HIV/AIDS
HIV is still around. STDs such as chlamydia can cause serious problems, including infertility, if left untreated. And syphilis and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are on the rise again among men in New York and other cities –- especially among men who have sex with men. HIV/AIDS Information We know that condoms can help prevent HIV and other STDs, as well as unwanted pregnancy. So why doesn't everybody always use them?
"He doesn't look sick." "He didn't ask me to wear one." "I was too high to ask." "He said he'd pull out." "As long as I'm the top, I'm safe." "People don't really get sick anymore." "I'm the only guy he does this with." "It’ll ruin the mood. I want to feel you." "You won’t get pregnant—you’re on the pill." "I can’t stay hard if I’m wearing one." "I’ll pull out before I come." "I’m clean, I promise." "You’re the only girl I’m with." "Sleep with another man? Never! I’m not gay!"
You Can't Tell Who's Positive You can't tell who has HIV –- or any other STD –- by the way he looks. You can't tell by whether he asks you to wear a condom. You can't tell by where he lives, or who he has sex with. He may not even know, himself. (As many as 1 in 4 New Yorkers living with HIV don't know they're infected.)
B.Y.O.C. (Bring Your Own Condom!) Talk to your partner about safer sex. That isn't always easy, especially the first time. But he needs to understand that sex just isn’t happening unless it's safe. He'll get used to the way a condom feels, and the sex will be better if you don't have to worry about getting HIV or getting pregnant.
And while new medications are helping people feel better and live longer with HIV, the drugs are expensive, have side effects, and don't work for everyone. So, using a condom to prevent HIV is still as important as ever.
Be prepared. Make sure you have condoms in your pockets, in your car, and in different places in your house, so they're always in reach. Know how to use a condom, and get comfortable with it, so putting it on won't seem like an interruption.
Here are some tips
Use a new condom for each sexual act. Use latex condoms. Condoms made of "natural" materials like lambskin don't protect against HIV and other STDs. (If you are allergic to latex, use condoms made of polyurethane or other synthetic materials.) Handle the condom carefully so it doesn't get damaged. Put the condom on after the penis is erect, before any sexual contact occurs. Use only water-based lubricants, such as K-Y or Astroglide, with latex condoms. Oil-based lubricants like Vaseline, baby oil, cooking oil, and lotion can weaken latex. Don't use lubricants that contain the spermicide nonoxynol 9 (N-9). We used to think that N-9 protected against HIV. But studies have found that frequent use of N-9 may actually make it easier to become infected with HIV and other STDs. After sex, hold the base of the condom to make sure it doesn't spill.
The female condom is a soft, loose-fitting, polyurethane pouch that protects against HIV and other STDs, as well as pregnancy. Since the female condom is placed in the vagina (not on the penis), some women feel it gives them more control. Like a male condom, each female condom should be used only once, then thrown away. If you want to stop using condoms because you're in a mutually monogamous relationship, both you and your partner should be tested for HIV and other STDs, first.
Protect Yourself and Others Not having sex and not shooting drugs are the only ways to be 100% certain you won't get infected with HIV.
If you're sexually active, you can reduce your risk of getting or spreading HIV and other STDs by having sex only in a mutually monogamous relationship with a partner you are sure is not infected. If you are having sex outside of such a relationship, you can reduce your risk by:
Always using a latex condom whenever you have sex. Using condoms when you or your partner are pregnant. STDs such as syphilis can be devastating for a baby. A condom can protect both you and the baby against HIV and other STDs. Never having anal sex without a condom. Some activities are riskier than others Unprotected anal sex is the greatest sexual risk for spreading HIV. Receptive anal intercourse is 5 times riskier than receptive vaginal intercourse and 50 times riskier than receptive oral sex. Insertive anal or vaginal intercourse is 10 times riskier than insertive oral sex. Oral sex is less risky than other penetrative sexual activities, but is not without risk for both partners.
Condoms greatly reduce the risk of spread
of HIV for both partners in anal, vaginal, and oral sex.
Limiting the number of people you have sex with. The more partners you have, the higher your risk. Having sex with people you don't know also increases your risk. Avoiding alcohol or drugs when you have sex. Being high makes it much harder to have safer sex. For free, confidential help with a substance abuse problem, call 1-800-LIFENET (1-800-543-3638). Getting vaccinated against hepatitis A and B. Getting tested for STDs. Having an STD can make it easier to become infected with HIV or to spread HIV to others. STDs often have no symptoms, so you may not know you're infected unless you're tested. If you think you have an STD or think you've been exposed, don't have sex until you and everyone you've had sex with are tested and completely treated (finished all your medication). Otherwise, you could infect each other again.
If you inject drugs, never share needles. Use a new, sterile needle and "works" every time. For information and help, call 311.
HIV Status? Do Ask, Do Tell If you've ever been sexually active, or ever injected drugs, you should be tested for HIV. By knowing your HIV status, you can protect yourself and anyone you are having sex with.
If you have HIV, it’s important to know. Early medical treatment can help you feel better and live longer. If you or your partner are pregnant or planning pregnancy, knowing your HIV status can save the baby's life. Without medication, a mother can pass HIV to her baby. But if you have HIV and are treated with medication, you can improve your own health and greatly reduce the chance that the baby will get infected.
If you're HIV-positive:
Talk to the people you've had sex with, so they can get counseling and testing, too. If you need help notifying your partners, talk to your doctor or call 311. Tell anyone you are thinking of having sex with that you're HIV-positive (before you have sex–even if they don't ask!). Use a latex condom every time you have sex. Even if you're on anti-HIV medications and even if your viral load is not detectable, you can still transmit HIV. Using a condom every time protects your partner. A condom also protects you from becoming infected with other STDs or different strains of HIV that may be more virulent or resistant to drug treatment. You Have a Right to Say "No" You have a right to say "no" to unwanted sex, and that includes unsafe sex. If someone is forcing you to have sex, with or without a condom, call 1-800-621-HOPE (1-800-621-4673) for help.
For more information about HIV and other STDs, including where to get free, confidential or anonymous counseling and testing, call 311.
Protecting Yourself Against HIV/AIDS
HIV is still around. STDs such as chlamydia can cause serious problems, including infertility, if left untreated. And syphilis and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are on the rise again among men in New York and other cities –- especially among men who have sex with men.
What is HIV?
HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. It is the virus that causes AIDS. People infected with HIV can remain healthy for years. Studies show that certain treatments can help extend and improve life for a person with HIV.
HIV can be spread mainly:
by having unprotected sex with someone infected with HIV;
by sharing needles with a person who has HIV to inject drugs, pierce ears, make tattoos; and
by a mother who has HIV to her baby before, during and after birth through breast feeding.
Current research shows that HIV is not spread through nonsexual, everyday activities, casual contact or through the air.
Should I have the HIV antibody test?
Yes, especially if you think that you may be infected. The sooner you know the results, the sooner you can receive treatment if you are infected. But before you have the test, talk with an AIDS counselor or health care provider about:
testing procedure and whether the test is "confidential" or "anonymous".
what the results may mean.
A positive test result means that you've been infected with HIV. Positive test results do not mean that you have AIDS or are likely to develop AIDS soon. However, they do mean that you can infect others with HIV.
Negative test results mean that you are probably not infected with HIV. You may be advised to be tested again. Ask how often you should be tested. A negative test result does not mean that you are immune to HIV, or that you can't get infected.
Discuss your results with a counselor or health care provider. Ask questions. Talk about any concerns you may have.
What should I do if my test result is positive?
Give yourself time to work through your feelings. It's OK (and very common) to feel afraid, angry, lonely, and depressed. Talk about your feelings with someone you trust. See a doctor, and learn all you can about living with HIV and about treatments. Keep up with the latest news, and talk with knowledgeable people.
Find a support group. There are many people who can help. Urge your sex and/or drug partner(s) to get counseling and testing too.
Remember, you are not alone. Turn to your partner, friends, family, and the sources of help in this document. Be honest and open with them, and with yourself.
How can I take charge of my life?
Find a physician or clinic experienced in treating people with HIV. Ask friends, relatives, or local AIDS organizations for help finding an appropriate provider.
Build a good relationship with your health care provider. He or she can provide expert health advice, referrals, and support. Bring a list of questions to ask and a notebook, so you can write down the answers.
Check with your health insurance policy. To find out what's covered and what's not, ask for a copy of your policy from your personnel director at work or your insurance agent. It's your right to ask for one.
Have checkups as often as recommended. Get a T-cell count (T-cells are a type of white blood cell that helps fight infection), a viral load test, and if recommended a TB (tuberculosis) test, any shots (vaccinations) you should have, and discuss anti-viral therapy or other treatment with your doctor.
How can I protect myself and others?
Take the issue of sex seriously. Since HIV can be spread through sexual contact, you must explore the options available. Not having sex is the safest option. Abstinence is the only sure way to avoid HIV, other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and pregnancy. If you do decide to have sex, always use a latex condom. Condoms are not foolproof, but when used properly they are highly effective in preventing HIV infection and other STDs. Always follow the directions on the condom package:
Use a new condom each time you have sex.
Handle the condom carefully.
Put the condom on as soon as the penis is erect.
Squeeze out any air at the tip of the condom.
Use a water based lubricant with the condom for vaginal or anal sex.
Never use oil based lubricants (Vaseline/petroleum jelly, massage oils, or body lotions) with latex condoms. Oil based products can cause condoms to break.
Hold the condom firmly by the rim while withdrawing after ejaculation.
Wash your hands after disposing of the condom.
Talk with your partner about HIV. Tell him or her you're infected and then discuss the options.
If you are pregnant or planning a pregnancy, ask you health care provider or family planning service for advice.
Avoid sharing personal care items such as razors and toothbrushes. But there is no need to have separate sets of dishes, utensils, etc.
Remember, HIV is NOT spread by casual contact. There's no reason to avoid being around people who are HIV positive.
Should I tell people that I'm infected?
This decision is a very personal one. It may help to talk with a counselor or a support group. You should tell any persons whom you may have put at risk so that they can take steps to protect themselves and others. Also, tell your dentist and other health care providers.
Are there drugs that I should take?
There are several treatment options for HIV infection and related illnesses. Ask you health care provider about which ones may be best for you. As with any drug, talk about the risks, benefits, and cost with your health care provider.
What are the signs of HIV infection?
For many people infected with HIV, there are no visible signs. Signs may take many years to appear. To be safe, see your health care provider if any of the following symptoms last more than a week:
unexplained weight loss
white spots or unusual marks in your mouth
Sources for Help, Support, and Information
health care providers, hospitals, and health clinics that regularly help people with HIV
NIAID AIDS Clinical Trails Information Service 1-800-874-2572
Project Inform 1-800-822-7422
National AIDS Information Clearinghouse 1-800-458-5231
Gay Men's Health Crisis Hotline 1-212-807-6655
For specific sources of help in your area, look in the front of the White Pages under "Community Service Numbers" or in the Yellow Pages under "AIDS:". And don't forget that your partner, friends, and relatives can be great sources of love and support.
For more information about HIV/AIDS, call 1-800-TALK-HIV.
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Dear friends and colleagues,
For every organization, change is inevitable in order for it to adapt with the complexities of the times and for it to grow strong. So it holds true for Asian American Council. Our Council is now revitalized and now known as Asian American Congress. During its inception in 1984, we are known as Asian American Advisory Council as its primary role then was to be an advisory body to NY Police Department. In 2000, we adapted to the changes and became Asian American Council since our role was expanded - not only in an advisory role but more in tune with the growing political and civil issues confronting the society. Thus, we became not geographically limited but became “global” in scope as we joined alliances with other international groups and we have chapters even in Central America. As our role is gradually expanding, we decided to adapt once again and to change for the better and, as of August 2016, we are to be known henceforth as the Asian American Congress.
Although we look forward to the future, we are cognizant of our colorful past such that we cannot move forward without the structure and accomplishments we did in the past. We are continuing to be the advocate of the people especially the voice of Asian American communities. We continue to forge ties and alliances with foreign cities and foster international understanding. We believe in peaceful co-existence, amity and friendship. We believe in the rule of law, civic-mindedness, loyalty to our country and proud of our ethnic heritage. We teach people to be more politically aware, cognizant of their right to self-determination and resolve in making their opinions count. We are, after all, the amalgam of our heritage and American dream.
As we are celebrating the 32nd year anniversary of Asian American Congress (formerly Asian American Council), we look forward to doing more good for the community. We will adapt if we need to adapt to modern times but we will not forget our basic aims and principles. We will not forget that we are here to champion the cause of Asian Americans. We are Asian American Congress after all.
Michael S. Limb
New Naturalization Test
New Naturalization Test with Sound 142 Questions and Answers for New Pilot Naturalization Test Produced by AAC Communication Director Oshell Oh
Honorable Barack Obama President of the United States of America
Honorable Andrew M. Cuomo Governor of New York State
Honorable Bill de Blasio The Mayor of City of New York
Honorable Edward P. Mangano Nassau County, Long Island. County Executive
Honorable Richard A. Brown District Attorney Queens County
Honorable James P. O'Neill Police Commissioner City of New York
Honorable Thomas C. Krumpter Nassau County Police Commissioner
The Asian American Council Michael S. Limb Executive Chairman ***************************** Together we can become more Innovative, Adaptive and Creative In solving today’s problems AsianAmericanCouncil.org Reception committee Co-Chairmen The Honorary Advisor Hon. James F. Brown Former Mayor of the City of Rome, New York Hon. Ernest D. Davis Former Mayor of the City of Mt. Vernon, New York Hon. Lorenzo Langford Former Mayor of the City of Atlantic City, New Jersey Hon. Edolphus Town Former U.S. Congressman New York, New York
Honorary Member Hon. Daniel Lewis Justice of the Supreme Court, State of New York
Legal Advisory Tony Legal Advisor Joseph Girardi, Esq. Legal Advisor Alan Greenberg, Esq. Legal Advisor David Ignacio, Esq. Legal Advisor
Peter S.X. Liang Chairman, Central Standing Cmte Su Lisa Xiu Qing Chairwoman Chinese Affairs Cmte James Fan Co-Chairman Chinese Business Affairs Cmte Qasim Majeed Chairman, Event Cmte Iqbal Mohamed Chairman, International Affairs Cmte Youn, Gun Soo Chairman, Korean Affairs Cmte Fujimoto Louis, MD Chairman, Japanese Affairs Cmte Singh Mahinder Chairman, Indian Religious Cmte Tomiko Abe Chairwoman, Japan Chapter Charles Lee Chairman, Korea Chapter Estrada Gordillo Chairman, Guatemala Chapter Oh H. Oshell Co-Chairman Communication Cmte Haroom Najaarm Co-Chairman Pakistan Affairs Cmte Cha Mun Kwan Co-Chairman Brooklyn Korean Business Affairs Cmte Lee Youg Chul Co-Chairman Queens Business Affairs Cmte
Copyright ⓒAll rights reserved. AsianAmericanCouncil.org The Asian American Council Michael S. Limb Executive Chairman Web Producer: by AAC Co-Chairman & Communication Director Oshell Oh 159-16 Union Tpke. Suite # 212 Fresh Meadows, New York 11366 email: firstname.lastname@example.org